It is well known that animals have a variety of vestigial organs. To be short, as I was studying the evolution of cells, I wondered if these also existed in cells. After a few brief google searches, I found no results. I would expect a few things to be left over in cells or bacteria because (to my knowledge) 1. Mutations occur at a faster rate in cells 2. Cells reproduce significantly faster than multi-cellular organisms and 3. Seem to be necessary for organs to be produced. Please let me know if I am wrong in any of those statements.
As I was researching the evolution of the flagellum, I saw that most of the parts, of course, had their own role without being irreducibly complex. However, I saw that in the very beginning stages, holes in the cell wall came about, and proteins just happened to attach to these holes. If scenarios like these can be observed today please let me know. I don't see how anything could evolve if it didn't happen, but I didn't find any information on this occurring. Thank you for reading.
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