Bridge of Size
Donating = Loving
Bringing you atheist articles and building active godless communities takes hundreds of hours and resources each month. If you find any joy or stimulation at Atheist Republic, please consider becoming a Supporting Member with a recurring monthly donation of your choosing, between a cup of tea and a good dinner.
Log in or create an account to join the discussions on the Atheist Republic forums.
@Old Man: Someone posted something like this the other day. I found it fascinating and have been reading up. It should answer your question.
"Approximately 32 million adults in the United States can't read, according to the U.S. Department of Education and the National Institute of Literacy. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development found that 50 percent of U.S. adults can't read a book written at an eighth-grade level."
@Cognostic: Approximately 32 million adults in the United States can't read
And there you have the secret of Donald's success. He's distilled his whole political strategy down into a four-letter slogan that can be printed on a hat over the space where Americans used to keep their brains. Even illiterates can pick out a four-letter word if they see it often enough.
Honestly, this makes me weep. I spent my childhood in a very tired England watching America surge ahead in every field of technology. It gave us all hope and excitement to see American jet fighters, rockets, space apes, Alan Shepard, John Glenn, Neil Armstrong... Star Trek reinforced that image of American technological prowess and hope for the future. Now god is turning Americans into dumbed-down illiterate Trump monkeys. What a crime.
Yes I think it was FTW. I read it and clicked the links. Very scary indeed. Then we have Ohio allowing religios wrong answers to be marked correct.....it explained posters like Jo, and the current fantasies.
But you'll bow down to the wishful thinking of the authors of a pre-scientific mythology. Double standard duly noted.
Bollocks. The evidence for testable natural processes being responsible for all manner of entities and phenomena, is available by the supertanker load, in something like five million peer reviewed scientific papers. Many of which contain, wait for it, direct experimental test of the relevant postulates. Perhaps if you read even a small fraction of said literature, you would learn why those of us who paid attention in class, regard scientific postulates as vastly superior to mythological assertion.
Are you genuinely this stupid, or is this merely more apologetic duplicity, erected to try and hide your manifest ignorance?
First of all, this specious attempt to play the tiresome creationist "where you there" card, can also be thrown right back at you. Were you there to observe the purported "events" asserted to have taken place in mythology? No? Then you're in no place to pull this piece of apologetic duplicity.
Second, in the case of, say, the origin of life, you have heard of chemical reactions, haven't you? Oh wait, the relevant scientists working in the field, postulate that specific chemical reactions were implicated in the origin of life, and in order to test this, they demonstrated that said reactions worked, and under prebiotic conditions.
Third, in the case of many postulates about the past, we don't need to have been there. All we need, is for the requisite interactions to leave behind them sufficiently persistent physical evidence. Which has happened.
Fourth, "faith" isn't based upon evidence, it's nothing more than uncritical acceptance of unsupported assertions. Which is all that mythology fanboys have to offer.
Fifth, good luck with your attachment to the merely asserted "supernatural". We've been waiting for 5,000 years for assorted mythology fanboys to come up with something better than "my mythology says so, therefore it's true", while in the 300 years it's been operating, modern science has asked, and answered, questions you and your ilk were incapable of even fantasising about.
@C. Come on C. We can all read between the lines. "Then you're in no place to pull this piece of apologetic duplicity (OUT OF YOUR ASS!)
You know you wanted to say it!!!
Well well, another creatard who doesn't have even the most basic understanding of evolution, and is comparing it to abiogenesis.
Why aren't they embarrassed by such ignorance? I mean they could Google the difference here in a nanosecond. This tired old carnard represents the end of any attempt at erudite discourse, it's like claiming Newtonian theories of gravity are wrong because they don't tell us how the universe came to exist.
It's also impossible to accept these creatards haven't noticed the only scientific facts they reject are the ones that contradict the myths in their chosen superstition.
Dear oh dear...
As always I direct this lunatic to the talkorigins website, and urge him to educate himself at least with the most basic facts. Like what evolution means, and what the scientific theory evidences and explains and of course what it does not.
I also yet again urge him to look up and understand common logical fallacies, like the argumentum ad ignorantiam fallacy that implies here not knowing how life originated validates the unevidenced superstition of creationism.
Everything is entirely made of sub atomic particles, nothing is immune from this, we are not 'special'.
When you open a door, it is not 'you' opening the door, but an interaction between the above.
Furthermore, if you follow the chain of causality, everything conforms to known laws of nature and physics.
What you propose is the suspension of the aforementioned and if that is the case, you must meet the burden of proof.
TAKE THE QUIZ:
"It turns out you're not stupid at all. In fact, your intelligence is probably above average. Thanks for playing and for being the shining beacon of intelligence that you are."
And my astrology sign is Gemeni, and my birth stone is Tiger-eye, and I have an Ouroboros tattooed on my back and the other around the scar my foreskin left behind. I had a nose piercing but it got ripped out in a bar fight when I lost my three front teeth.
Obviously nothing said in this post is true.
Fucking test is inconsistent as hell. I took it a second time an it gave me this fucking shit ---
"The results are in and...you're stupid. We'd prefer to let you down gently but there's just no other way to say it. But so what, it's not like stupid people can't live wonderful, happy lives. Embrace yourself for what you are and live every day like it could be your last...which it very well could be, considering how moronic you are. Just kidding. Not about the stupid part, but...well, let's not dwell on it. Thanks for playing."
Asshole test ---- DON'T TAKE IT. We alls knou I is smatr.
@David: Post 51
Oh, in the meantime, anyone who wants to claim that evolution cannot result in speciation events, has to contend with this little list of scientific papers from the speciation literature, along with, of course, several hundred others containing additional evidence for evolutionary generation of speciation events ...
A Model For Divergent Allopatric Speciation Of Polyploid Pteridophytes Resulting From Silencing Of Duplicate-Gene Expression by Charles R.E. Werth and Michael D. Windham, American Naturalist, 137(4): 515-526 (April 1991) - DEVELOPMENT OF A MODEL TO MATCH OBSERVED SPECIATION IN NATURE
A Molecular Reexamination Of Diploid Hybrid Speciation Of Solanum raphanifolium by David M. Spooner, Kenneth. J. Sytsma and James F. Smith, Evolution, 45(3): 757-764 - DOCUMENTATION OF AN OBSERVED SPECIATION EVENT
A Mouse Speciation Gene Encodes A Meiotic Histone H3 Methyltransferase by Ondrej mihola, Zdenek Trachtulec, Cestmir Vlcek, John C. Scimenti and Jiri Forejt, Science, 323: 350-351 (16th January 2009) - DETERMINING THE FUNCTION OF A GENE DIRECTLY IMPLICATED IN SPECIATION AND FAILURE OF INTERFERTILITY BETWEEN DIVERGING POPULATIONS
A Rapidly Evolving MYB-Related Protein Causes Species Isolation In Drosophila by Daniel A. Barbash, Dominic F. Siino, Arron M. Tarone and John Roote, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 110(9): 5302-5307 (29th April 2003) - DETERMINING THE BEHAVIOUR OF A GENE DIRECTLY IMPLICATED IN SPECIATION AND FAILURE OF INTERFERTILITY BETWEEN DIVERGING POPULATIONS
A Screen For Recessive Speciation Genes Expressed In The Gametes Of F1 Hybrid Yeast by Duncan Greig, Public Library of Science Genetics, 3(2): e21 (February 2007) - Determining the presence of speciation genes in a primitive eukaryote, and the roles of any genes thus located
Adaptive Divergence And The Evolution Of Reproductive Isolation In The Wild: An Empirical Demonstration Using Introduced Sockeye Salmon by Andrew P. Hendry, Genetics, 112-113: 515-534 (2001) - DIRECT EXPERIMENTAL TEST OF REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION AND ITS ROLE IN SPECIATION EVENTS
Adaptive Evolution And Explosive Speciation: The Cichlid Fish Model by Thomas D. Kocher, Nature Reviews Genetics, 5: 288-298 (April 2004) - DISCUSSION OF METHODS OF EMPIRICAL DEMONSTRATION OF SPECIATION INCLUDING MOLECULAR ANALYSES
Chromosomal Rearrangements And Speciation by Loren H. Rieseberg, TRENDS In Ecology & Evolution, 16(7): 351-358 (July 2001) - determination of the input that chromosomal rearrangements may have upon speciation evnets
Chromosome Evolution, Phylogeny, And Speciation Of Rock Wallabies by G. B. Sharman, R. L. Close and G. M. Maynes, Australian Journal of Zoology, 37(2-4): 351-363 (1991) - DOCUMENTATION OF OBSERVED SPECIATION IN NATURE
Evidence For Rapid Speciation Following A Founder Event In The Laboratory by James R. Weinberg Victoria R. Starczak and Danielle Jörg, Evolution 46: 1214-1220 (15th January 1992) - EXPERIMENTAL GENERATION OF A SPECIATION EVENT IN THE LABORATORY
Evolutionary Theory And Process Of Active Speciation And Adaptive Radiation In Subterranean Mole Rats, Spalax ehrenbergi Superspecies, In Israel by E. Nevo, Evolutionary Biology, 25: 1-125 - DOCUMENTATION OF OBSERVED SPECIATION IN NATURE
Experimentally Created Incipient Species Of Drosophila by Theodosius Dobzhansky & Olga Pavlovsky, Nature 230: 289 - 292 (2nd April 1971) - EXPERIMENTAL GENERATION OF A SPECIATION EVENT IN THE LABORATORY
Founder-Flush Speciation On Drosophila pseudoobscura: A Large Scale Experiment by Agustí Galiana, Andrés Moya and Francisco J. Alaya, Evolution 47: 432-444 (1993) EXPERIMENTAL GENERATION OF A SPECIATION EVENT IN THE LABORATORY
Gene Duplication And Speciation In Drosophila: Evidence From The Odysseus Locus by Chau-Ti Ting, Shun-Chern Tsaur, Sha Sun, William E. Browne, Yung-Chia Chen, Nipam H. Patel and Chung-I Wu, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 101(33): 12232-12235 (17th August 2004) - EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF THE ROLE OF A DEFINED SPECIATION GENE AND DUPLICATION THEREOF IN SPECIATION EVENTS
Gene Transfer, Speciation, And The Evolution Of Bacterial Genomes by Jeffrey G. Lawrence, Current Opinion in Microbiology, 2(5): 519-523 (October 1999) - determining the role of horizontal gene transfer in the development of new bacterial serotypes
Genes And Speciation by Chung-I Wu, Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 14: 889-891 (2001) - development of a rigorous theory of reproductive isolation taking into account incomplete interfertility failure events
Hybrid Lethal Systems In The Drosophila melanogaster Species Complex. II. The Zygotic Hybrid Rescue (Zhr) Gene Of Drosophila melanogaster by Kyoichi Sawamura, Masa-Toshi Yamamoto and Takao K. Watanabe, Genetics, 133: 307-313 (February 1993) - EMPIRICAL DETERMINATION OF THE ROLE OF A NAMED SPECIATION GENE IN SPECIFIC LIVING ORGANISMS
Hybridisation And Adaptive Radiation by Ole Seehausen, TRENDS In Ecology & Evolution, 19(4): 198-207 (April 2004) - development of a rigorous theory underpinning hybrid speciation and SPECIFICATION OF EMPIRICAL TESTS OF THAT THEORY
Incipient Speciation By Sexual Isolation in Drosophila: Concurrent Evolution At Multiple Loci by Chau-Ti Ting, Aya Takahashi and Chung-I Wu, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 98(12): 6709-6713 (5th June 2001) - EMPIRICAL DEMONSTRATION OF THE EXISTENCE OF GENES GOVERNING MALE MATING SUCCESS AND FEMALE MATING PREFERENCE LEADING TO SEXUAL SELECTION AND SPECIATION
Laboratory Experiments On Speciation: What Have We Learned In 40 Years? by William R. Rice and Ellen E. Hostert, Evolution, 47(6):1637-1653 (December 1993) - review of speciation literature and determination of the validity of reproductive isolation as a speciation mechanism
Models Of Evolution Of Rperoductive Isolation by Masatoshi Nei, Takeo Maruyama and Chung-I Wu, Genetics, 103: 557-559 (March 1983) - DIRECT EMPIRICAL TEST OF MODELS OF REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, AND ESTABLISHMENT OF CORRELATION WITH REAL WORLD DATA
Phylogenetics And Speciation by Timothy G. Barraclough and Sean Nee, TRENDS in Ecology & Evolution, 16(7): 391-399 (July 2001) - Determination of rigorous methods for using phylogenetic analyses to establish speciation events
Pollen-Mediated Introgression And Hybrid Speciation In Louisiana Irises by Michael L. Arnold, Cindy M. Buckner and Jonathan J. Robinson, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 88(4): 1398-1402 (February 1991) - OBSERVATION OF A SPECIATION EVENT IN NATURE
Premating Isolation Is Determined by Larval Rearing Substrates in Cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis. IV. Correlated Responses In Behavioral Isolation To Artificial Selection On A Life-History Trait by William J. Etges, The American Naturalist, 152(1): 129-144 (July 1998) - DIRECT EMPIRICAL TEST OF BEHAVIOURAL ISOLATION AS A MECHANISM DRIVING SPECIATION
Rapid Evolution Of Postzygotic Reproductive Isolation In Stalk-Eyed Flies by Sarah J. Christianson, John G. Swallow and Gerald S. Wilkinson, Evolution, 59(4): 849-857 (12th January 2005) - DIRECT EMPIRICAL TEST AND MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF SEXUAL SELECTION AND HYBRID STERILITY AS MECHANISMS DRIVING SPECIATION
Role Of Gene Interactions In Hybrid Speciation: Evidence From Ancient And Experimental Hybrids by Loren H. Rieseberg, Barry Sinervo, C. Randall Linder, Mark C. Ungerer and Dulce M. Arias, Science, 272: 741-745 (3rd May 1996) - DIRECT EXPERIMENTAL TESTS OF HYPOTHESES REGARDING HYBRID SPECIATION
Searching For Speciation Genes by Roger Butlin and Michael G. Ritchie, Nature, 412: 31-33 (5th July 2001) - DIRECT EMPIRICAL SEARCH FOR GENES IMPLICATED IN SPECIATION EVENTS
Selfish Operons And Speciation By Gene Transfer by Jeffrey G. Lawrence, Trends in Microbiology, 5(9): 355-359 (September 1997) - EMPIRICAL DETERMINATION OF MECHANISMS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF NEW BACTERIAL SEROTYPES
Sex-Related Genes, Directional Sexual Selection, And Speciation by Alberto Civetta and Rama S. Singh, Molecular & Biological Evolution, 15(7): 901-909 (1998) - EMPIRICAL DETERMINATION OF THE SHAPING OF GENES IMPLICATED IN SPECIATION VIA SEXUAL SELECTION
Sexual Selection, Reproductive Isolation And The Genic View Of Speciation by J. J. M. Van Alphen and Ole Seehausen, Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 14: 874-875 (2001) - application of known speciation mechanisms to the Lake Victoria superflock of Cichlid fishes
Speciation Along Environmental Gradients by Michael Doebeli and Ulf Dieckmann, Nature, 421: 259-264 (16th January 2003) - determination of the effects of environmental pressures upon the outcome of speciation events
Speciation And The Evolution Of Gamete Recognition Genes: Pattern And Process by S. R. Palumbi, Heredity, 102: 66-76 (2009) - determination of the role of gamete recognition genes in speciation events, and their rapid evolution in segregated populations
Speciation By Hybridisation In Heliconius Butterflies by Jesús Mavárez, Camilo A. Salazar, Eldredge Bermingham, Christian Salcedo, Chris D. Jiggins and Mauricio Linares, Nature, 441: 868-871 (15th June 2006) - DETERMINATION OF A SPECIATION EVENT IN NATURE, FOLLOWED BY LABOARTORY REPRODUCTION OF THAT SPECIATION EVENT, AND CONFIRMATION THAT THE LABORATORY INDIVIDUALS ARE INTERFERTILE WITH THE WILD TYPE INDIVIDUALS
Speciation By Hybridization In Phasmids And Other Insects By Luciano Bullini and Guiseppe Nascetti, Canadian Journal of Zoology 68(8): 1747-1760 (1990) - OBSERVATION OF A SPECIATION EVENT IN NATURE
Speciation By Postzygotic Isolation: Forces, Genes And Molecules by H. Allen Orr and Daven C. Presgraves, Bioessays, 22(12): 1085-1094 (2000) - EMPIRICAL DETERMINATION OF THE EXISTENCE OF SPECIATION GENES AND THEIR ROLE IN INTERFERTILITY FAILURE BETWEEN SEGREGATED POPULATIONS
Speciation Genes by H. Allen Orr, John P. Masly and Daven C. Presgraves, Current Opinion in Genetics & Development, 14: 675-679 (2004) - DETERMINATION OF THE EXISTENCE OF SPECIATION GENES AND THEIR SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DARWINIAN SELECTION
Speciation, Hybrid Zones And Phylogeography - Or Seeing Genes In Space And Time by Godfrey M. Hewitt, Molecular Ecology, 10: 537-549 (2001) - review of origins of speciation theory, current developments, and application to past and present speciation events
Speciation By Habitat Specialisation: The Evolution Of Reproductive Isolation As A Correlated Character by William R. Rice, Evolutionary Ecology, 1: 301-314 (1987) - LINKING OF SPECIATION EVENTS TO NICHE MOBILITY AND ADAPTATION FOR NEW NICHES
The Evolution Of Asymmetry In Sexual Isolation: A Model And Test Case by Stevan J. Arnold, Paul A. Verrell and Stephen G. Tilley, Evolution, 50(3): 1024-1033 (June 1996) - DEVELOPMENT OF AN EXTENDED MODEL OF SEXUAL SELECTION FOLLOWED BY EMPIRICAL TEST OF THAT MODEL AND DETERMINATION OF CORRELATION WITH A REAL WORLD POPULATION DIVERGENCE EVENT
The Evolution Of Reproductive Isolation Through Sexual Conflict by Oliver Y. Martin and David J. Hosken, Nature,423: 979-982 (26th June 2003) - DIRECT EXPERIMENTAL TEST OF SEXUAL CONFLICT AS A DRIVER OF SPECIATION
The Evolutionary Genetics Of Speciation by Jerry A. Coyne and H. Allen Orr, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Part B, 353: 287-305 (1998) review of recent advances in speciation theory and empirical results
The Genetic Basis Of Reproductive Isolation: Insights From Drosophila by H. Allen Orr, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 102 supplement 1: 6522-6526 (3rd May 2005) - review of work on speciation genes and the empirical determination of their roles
The Genic View Of The Process Of Speciation by Chung-I Wu, Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 14: 851-865 (2001) - review of theory of speciation including renewed insights into Darwin's own early view of the topic, and how this correlates to a hitherto unforeseen extent with modern genetic results
The Gibbons Speciation Mechanism by S. Ramadevon and M. A. B. Deaken, Journal of Theoretical Biology, 145(4): 447-456 (1991) - DEVELOPMENT OF A MODEL ACCOUNTING FOR OBSERVED INSTANCES OF SPECIATION
The Phylogeny Of Closely Related Species As Revealed By The Genealogy Of A Speciation Gene, Odysseus by Chau-Ti Ting, Shun-Chern Tsaur and Chung-I Wu, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 97(10): 5313-5316 (9th May 2000) - EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF A PREDICTION ABOUT SPECIATION MECHANISMS AT THE MOLECULAR LEVEL
The Population Genetics Of Speciation: The Evolution Of Hybrid Incompatibilities by H. Allen Orr, Genetics, 139: 1805-1813 (April 1995) - development of a gene-based model for speciation and the implications of the results obtained from that model for speciation research
The Theory Of Speciation Via The Founder Principle by Alan R. Templeton, Genetics, 94:1011-1038 (April 1980) - development of a model for founder speciation, and DIRECT EXPERIMENTAL TEST of that model by applying it to a real world organism
What Does Drosophila Genetics Tell Us About Speciation? by James Mallet, TRENDS in Ecology & Evolution, 21(7): 386-393 (July 2006) - Comparison of Drosophila data with data from other organisms to produce a more complete picture of speciation mechanics
Indeed, one of the papers I didn't list above, but which is particularly relevant, is one I shall now cover in detail, viz:
Reproductive Isolation As A Consequence Of Adaptive Divergence In Drosophila pseudoobscura by Diane M. B. Dodd, Evolution, 43(6): 1308-1311 (September 1989) [Full paper downloadable from here]
Basically, Dodd's experiment consisted of maintaining populations of flies, subjecting them to different dietary régimes in a manner that would result in adaptations to those régimes appearing, then demonstrating that assortative mating took place amongst the flies - in other words, members of each population exhibited a strong preference for members of their own population as mate choices.
Assortative mating is regarded as a major sign of incipient speciation, because it eliminates gene flow between the populations, thus ensuring that those populations will diverge. Eventually, said divergence will result in a fertility gap arising between the two populations. If we have two such populations, A and B, then individuals from population A can be trial mated to individuals from population B, to determine if interfertility failure has taken place. If it has, then you have a bona fide speciation event. Prior to such tests indicating interfertility failure, what you have, from a rigorous standpoint, is an incipient speciation event - the potential is there, but it hasn't actually been put to the test fully. Dodd only claimed in her paper that assortative mating was observed, but of course, assortative mating is a significant indicator that speciation is taking place, because of its effects upon gene flow.
Let's delve into the paper in more detail, shall we?
Basically, the procedure consisted of the following:
 Set up several populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura, divided into two groups. One group of populations is raised on a starch-rich medium (these populations are designated in her paper with the postfix "st"), and the other group is raised on a maltose-rich medium (these populations are designated with the postfix "ma").
 Keep these populations separate from each other for a number of generations. In Dodd's experiment, approximately 1 year elapsed before the assortative mating tests took place. For this species, 1 year equates to 8 new generations, which might seem to be a surprisingly small number of generations for any such effect to become noticeable: more usually, one would expect something like 30 or 40 generations to be required. One of the interesting features of Dodd's research, which has since been replicated with essentially the same results, is that the experimental results were obtained after just 8 generations of separation. Out of interest, way back in the 1960s, Theodosius Dobzhansky reared a population of the same fly species in isolation from wild-type flies for approximately 5 years, then tested his population for interfertility with the wild type - the paper in question documenting this is the following:
Experimentally Created Incipient Species Of Drosophila by Theodosius Dobzhansky & Olga Pavlovsky, Nature 230: 289 - 292 (2nd April 1971)
Sadly this paper is behind a paywall, so I can't bring it in here (sigh), but the abstract reads thus:
In that experiment, Dobzhansky demonstrated that his laboratory population of Drosophila exhibited interfertility failure with wild type flies - all the males produced by cross matings were sterile. This occurred after just five years of isolation, which would equal approximately 40 generations in the case of Drosophila pseudoobscura.
As a consequence of that prior work, Dodd's research can safely be regarded as having generated an incipient speciation event, because cessation of gene flow between Drosophila populations has been demonstrated to result in rapid divergence between the populations thus genetically isolated, sufficient to result in empirically validated interfertility failure, at which point you have a full-blown speciation event.
Let's return to Dodd's paper, shall we?
So, the following tests were performed:
 Establish whether there existed positive assortative mating enforcing genetic separation between the st and ma populations;
 Establish whether or not positive assortative mating occurred within the separate st and ma populations as well, in order to eliminate founder-flush effects.
The results were conclusive. Strong positive assortative mating existed between the st and ma populations after only 8 generations. However, no such assortative mating occurred within the st populations or the ma populations.
Dodd's paper concludes with:
I think that covers all the bases you need. Of course, this is one of the reasons why I keep telling people to read the papers for themselves, so that they can see for themselves what is actually being claimed.
In short, Dodd demonstrated that two separated populations, will eventually develop assortative mating preventing gene flow between those populations, and that over time., the divergence in those separated populations will eventually result in interfertility failure between those populations, at which point one has a speciation event in place. This is an experiment that the diligent can perform in an ordinary greenhouse over a three year period, at the end of which, one will have populations diverged to the point of interfertility failure. Which means that you can produce your own speciation event, simply by keeping the relevant populations separated for sufficient time.
Again, game over, methinks.
I'm beginning to think Vochensmut is a troll , or possibly a Trump voter.
On the other hand, I guess it is possible for a person to be so engulfed with cognitive dissonance so as to be literally incapable of reason when it comes to personal superstitions.
In the meantime, it's nice to have a nice new chew toy. When everyone is finally sufficiently bored, just ignore it and it will go away
@Calilasseia: RE: Speciation. I gotta admit, to any normal human being that would seem like a slam ducn, bitch slap into reality. But you gotta remember those creationists have super human mind control and the all powerful God, creator of the universe, on their side. I just worry that it's not enough for them.
(Edit: don't slam your duck, it will die. Dunk it instead.)
The most commonly used bestselling text for medical practitioners and students on human anatomy, is The Atlas of Human Anatomy by Frank H Netter MD.
Now guess what, it tells us nothing at all about the origin of life. One assumes then this latest creatard troll thinks the book, and the entire medical profession are wrong?
Or is evolution being singled out yet again by another disgruntled creatard, because it contradicts the risible unevidenced creation myth is his bible.
4 pages, and not one piece of objective evidence offered to support the existence of any deity, quelle surprise.