MOVIE NIGHT!

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doG's picture
Hmmmm what is that thing? You

Hmmmm what is that thing? You know...lives under a bridge or in a cave, hates humans...ohhh come on, what's the name again?

doG's picture
@babyfishy

@babyfishy

On the risk of sounding repetitive...

What objective evidence can you demonstrate for any deity or deities?
What objective evidence can you demonstrate for any deity or deities?
What objective evidence can you demonstrate for any deity or deities?
What objective evidence can you demonstrate for any deity or deities?
What objective evidence can you demonstrate for any deity or deities?
What objective evidence can you demonstrate for any deity or deities?
What objective evidence can you demonstrate for any deity or deities?
What objective evidence can you demonstrate for any deity or deities?
What objective evidence can you demonstrate for any deity or deities?
What objective evidence can you demonstrate for any deity or deities?
What objective evidence can you demonstrate for any deity or deities?
What objective evidence can you demonstrate for any deity or deities?
What objective evidence can you demonstrate for any deity or deities?
What objective evidence can you demonstrate for any deity or deities?
What objective evidence can you demonstrate for any deity or deities?
What objective evidence can you demonstrate for any deity or deities?
What objective evidence can you demonstrate for any deity or deities?
What objective evidence can you demonstrate for any deity or deities?
What objective evidence can you demonstrate for any deity or deities?
What objective evidence can you demonstrate for any deity or deities?
What objective evidence can you demonstrate for any deity or deities?
What objective evidence can you demonstrate for any deity or deities?
What objective evidence can you demonstrate for any deity or deities?
What objective evidence can you demonstrate for any deity or deities?

So that you are not skirting scandanavian folklore...maybe you can answer this question, in one sentence.

Thank you, come again.

Sheldon's picture
doG "What objective evidence

doG "What objective evidence can you demonstrate for any deity or deities?

So that you are not skirting scandanavian folklore...maybe you can answer this question, in one sentence."

He can answer it with one word if he had any integrity, NONE. His answer became superfluous some time ago of course. Indeed his answer to this, as with all theists, becomes redundant the minute they post, but don't immediately open with objective evidence, if there was any why would any sane person post anything else?

It's tteh same tired old theistic lie, we have evidence repeated endlessly, then a mile down the road when we are all hoarse from asking for it, they claim we inexplicably missed it, or are in denial, it's pathetically dishonest.

Sadly FishNChips either doesn't know what objective means, or he is being dishonest, when he keeps touting fallacious subjective arguments, and creationist propaganda lies, and claiming this represents objective evidence.

doG's picture
If you read his drivel, you

@sheldon

If you read his drivel, you will come to the conclusion that he does not know the functional difference between objective and subjective evidences...which is sad. However, as you are painfully aware, quite often, this level of delusion also quite often leads to dishonesty. On every post to fishcult, I have reminded him to make sure that he knows the difference between said evidences. Anywho, I am thinking he is bound for relegation to the scandanavian folklore cave dwellers.

Cognostic's picture
@Crankey: RE: "In a 2003

@Crankey: RE: "In a 2003 Music Choice poll, it was voted as the worst Beatles cover of all time.[2]" (Wikipedia)"

Holy FUCK! Was there no score lower than "WORST.?" That was horrible is that I was writing this when the WORST BOHEMIAN RHAPSODY I have ever heard began playing. WHAT THE FUCK WAS THIS IDIOT THINKING?

I gotta say...BOHEMIAN RHAPSODY is certainly giving Strawberry Fields a run for its money......https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rmPOWJtsEGc

He's like one of the idiots on Star Search or American Idol that actually thinks he has some talent but scores a big ZERO. If I had heard this shit before, I would have stopped watching Star Treck. It's that bad.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rmPOWJtsEGc

cranky47's picture
@Cognostic

@Cognostic

"@Crankey: RE: "In a 2003 Music Choice poll, it was voted as the worst Beatles cover of all time.[2]" (Wikipedia)" "

The Transformed Man album was recorded in 1968.

Why ?

Over the years I've gathered that Mr Shatner is one of those people who can't carry a tune but insists on singing anyway at every possible opportunity. I do too, but only when alone in my bed very late at night.

Ever since seeing the original Star Trek when it was first released I've thought that Mr Shatner had no discernible talent of any kind. I'm at at loss to explain how he ever got any work as an actor.

Apart from Judgement at Nuremberg in which he had tiny part , I can only remember one other of his early offerings. A B- grade b&w horror film with Barnard Hughes.

OF COURSE when the original Star Trek was made was made ,it was customary for sc ifi shows to spend as little as possible on the actors. EG War of The Worlds (1953 version), Invasion Of The body Snatchers (original version) Forbidden Planet---TV ; The Twilight Zone,(original version) Lost in Space.(original version)

---None of Shatner's fellow thespians in the original Star Trek were exactly A list actors

Easy to forget just how many THOUSANDS of truly dreadful films and TV shows have been made--and that was before Netfilx, which is adding to those numbers at an almost exponential rate. I've begun to quite enjoy South American narco melodramas

Cognostic's picture
@HOLY FUCK! William Shatner

@HOLY FUCK! William Shatner "Rocket Man" I never realized what a no talent poser he was. People didn't actually pay to see this shit did they? How many fucking songs did he end up butchering? I've see high school bands with more talent than this.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5hARDXYz2io

Total Eclipse of the Heart: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J648lr8cjuw

Spirit in the Sky: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FRpwHqVU1YA

William Shatner "HAS BEEN" FUCK! My ears are bleeding. This idiot actually thought he had some musical talent. HORRIBLE!
www.youtube.com/watchv=Uol6HRMryoo&list=RDFRpwHqVU1YA&index=13

In the immortal words of Popeye the Sailor, "That's all I can stands. I can't stand no more." https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h97kbv4mbsc

David Killens's picture
But but but ... but you haven

But but but ... but you haven't heard William do country...............

CAUTION: THIS MATERIAL MAY FUCK YOU UP

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iWlsSCJ6f0s

doG's picture
@poopyknome

@poopyknome

I enjoy spending time with the temporal rain forests' cheeses.

What?

I hospital am going.

Tin-Man's picture
Re: Shatner singing

Re: Shatner singing

THAT'S IT!!!.... NO MORE!!!....I'M DONE!!!... THE HELL WITH THIS SHIT!!!... SCREW ALL OF YOU SADISTIC ASSHOLES!...POINT ME TO SOMEBODY INFECTED WITH THE VIRUS! I'M GONNA HAVE THEM COUGH AND SPIT ALL IN MY FACE!... ARRRRRRRGGG....!

Cognostic's picture
re: Country.... Fuck!

re: Country.... Fuck! He must have paid audiences to sit and listen to him. I WOULD WALK OUT OF ANY PERFORMANCE THAT WAS AS BAD AS THIS SHIT. (AND DEMAND A REFUND)

Cognostic's picture
ON TOP OF BEING A NO TALENT

ON TOP OF BEING A NO TALENT FAKE PIECE OF SHIT PERFORMER.....
Fans have voiced their anger and disappointment as it was announced this evening William Shatner’s event at the Eventim Apollo would go ahead amid the deadly spread of coronavirus, despite government warnings about gatherings of more than 500 people.

Read more: https://metro.co.uk/2020/03/16/fans-furious-william-shatner-event-goes-a...

cranky47's picture
@Cognostic

@Cognostic

Ah, come on, that's fake news, innit.

Here in Australia , excluding family members with whom one lives, gatherings of more thanTWO people are banned. That means ALL, including religious ceremonies. (excluding work and study if that can't be avoided)

FishNChips007's picture
@ Cali

@ Cali
Thank you for your posts. You are however missing the point. First, perhaps you should admit that you are all being, at best, mildly hypocritical. Can you show me objective evidence for your theory which supposedly took place over millions of years? Or, will you admit that you have to accept that the theory is true, and you have to accept it by faith.

Even if you want to have faith in your theory of evolution, all of your research, at best, can only provide an explanation of what happened AFTER life already appeared on the scene. What you provide is a very close - and I mean, your eye pressed up against the canvas (how is that for clarity?) - examination of the brush strokes of a painting which already exists. Do you admit you have no idea how life came to be?

Rightly are you prophesied of in The Bible, "Professing to be wise, they became fools..." Romans 1:22 (that's for all of you, by the way)

But, since you deem yourselves to be of superior intellect, I challenge you to go and refute the members of the scientific community who argue for creation at https://reasons.org/

I also challenge all of you to ask yourselves, and be honest with yourselves, why have you rejected the God of the Bible?

Keep in mind that criminals tend to avoid police offers and they tend to abhor the judge.

Could it be that there is sin in your lives that you love more than the truth?

I have shared the Gospel with you already on this site, but will do so again.

What will you do on the Day of Judgement when God pours out His wrath on this sinful and rebellious world?

I am not judging you, as I would be twice dead if I got what I deserved. Please keep that in mind. We are all on the same playing field.

God cannot simply overlook sin, as that would make Him crooked, which He is not. But He Himself paid the fine for you, took all that wrath and suffered it in your place. That is what Jesus (God in the flesh) did on the cross. He was able to do so, having never once sinned, being fully God and fully man.

Then, He rose from the dead defeating death.

Do not have regrets on Judgement Day. This is serious, and all I can do is plead with you.

Ask yourself, what motivates me to do this? I am not trying to get you to go and join any particular local church, I am not asking any of you for money, and I am not getting paid to come up against your ridicule and disrespect, nor am I doing this to earn any status with God, as His work is complete at the Cross.

I am simply one beggar who has found the Bread that Satisfies and want to share it with you before you starve to death.

Acknowledge and turn from your sin and entrust your life to Jesus, He is the only way.

If you were in a burning building, on the top floor of a fairly high building, and a Firefighter came to the window, how quickly you would accept that he was the only way out of certain death.

God made a way for you. Please do not have any regrets on Judgement Day.

Sheldon's picture
FishNChips007 "Even if you

FishNChips007 "Even if you want to have faith in your theory of evolution"

Oh dear, another creationist canard that has become a cliche of woeful ignorance, Scientific theories are defined as " a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a body of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experiment. Such fact-supported theories are not "guesses" but reliable accounts of the real world."

It might help you look less woefully and wilfully ignorant on here, if you didn't make statements without even bothering to do the most cursory research, and find out if they have any basis in fact, but species evolution is supported and explained by the theory of evolution, that theory contains overwhelming objective evidence, all you have done is pull down your own pants and give yourself a spanking in front of everyone here.

If it helps your embarrassment, you're not the first religious apologists to make this most embarrassing gaff, but FYI scientific theories, like the scientific method, are the very antithesis of faith based beliefs like creationism, for which you can demonstrate no objective evidence.

Now for your second equally embarrassing gaff, the scientific theory of evolution makes no claims about the origins of life, it evidences and explains the diversity of life, and of course drives a fact based wooden stake through the rotten superstitious black heart of faith based creationist myths like genesis, that make claims that are directly at odds with objective scientific facts. So this fact, and the fact that there isn't a shred of objective evidence for creationist superstition is reason enough for any remotely objective or rational person to disbelieve creationism's woo woo claims, not knowing how life originated no more evidences those farcical fantasies than not being able to explore every part of the oceans validates the claim mermaids are hiding in there. Finally the fact evolution doesn't explain the origins of life, no more invalidates any part of it, than the fact that calculus or the theory of relativity don't explain the origins of the universe invalidate them, you'd have to be the the most blinkered closed minded and wilfully ignorant adherent of superstition to think it would. Can you see where this is going?

Again, I urge you to goo to the talkorigins website and arm yourself with at least the most cursory facts, as you are embarrassing yourself with creationist canards like claiming evolution requires faith. Quote the babble all you want, it is meaningless superstition, if that's how you want to waste your life that's your call, but you will get no traction with such nonsense here, as the posters on this site live in the real world.

http://www.talkorigins.org/

FishNChips "go and refute the members of the scientific community who argue for creation at https://reasons.org/"

Sorry, but are you claiming that the theory of evolution has been falsified? This is fucking hilarious, can you explain why the entire scientific world, and every single major news network globally has missed this? No Nobel prize, no banner headlines on every news network, no theists massing globally to celebrate, hell even the catholic church seems unaware of this paradigm shifting news?

You really are embarrassing yourself now, since qualifying as a scientist doesn't validate anyone's claims, the scientific method does this, you seem ignorant of the most basic facts and methodology of science, though sadly in my experience this typifies the bumbling blind adherence of creationists to the woo woo dogma they have been fed, it's all very sad really.

Sheldon's picture
FishNChips007 "What will you

FishNChips007 "What will you do on the Day of Judgement when God pours out His wrath on this sinful and rebellious world?"

I'll ride to safety on a magic unicorn.....since we're just making shit up.

dear oh dear...

FishNChips007 "Could it be that there is sin in your lives that you love more than the truth?

I am not judging you, "

Fnarr. funnier and funnier, I love it when the superstitious lose the mask of faux rationality and climb into a pulpit hurling woo woo fire and brimstone, it means I can stop trying to cure their wilful ignorance, and just point and laugh.

Tin-Man's picture
Re: The Sermon of the Trout

Re: The Sermon of the Trout

Choir music.... *nodding head in self approval*.... That's what we're missing... Choir music... After all, it wouldn't be a proper sermon without choir music....

https://youtu.be/0F1o8m-VGqQ

There. That's better. Even has the lyrics so everybody can sing along very softly for the perfect ambiance.... *satisfied sigh*... Oh! Almost forgot. Who wants to volunteer to pass around the collection plate today?

Whitefire13's picture
Oh fish&chips...

Oh fish&chips...

All this “worry” you have from a book.

Don’t worry about us we’ll be fine.

Edited to add: https://www.atheistrepublic.com/forums/debate-room/stupidity-christian-t...

Which atonement do you subscribe to?

Whitefire13's picture
@Fishycrackers...

@Fishycrackers...

“The Lord has blinded their eyes and hardened their hearts— so that their eyes cannot see, and their hearts cannot understand, and they cannot turn to me and have me heal them.”. John 12:40

Who’s fuckin’ fault?!?!

Re: response to “Professing to be wise, they became fools..." Romans 1:22

FishNChips007's picture
You've used this verse out of

You've used this verse out of context. It was written of a specific people group who would not believe the report and had already hardened their own hearts against God in favor of their own traditions and cleverness. Therefore, God blinded their eyes and hardened their hearts, giving to them what they wanted.

Can you be sure He hasn't also done this to you guys, giving you what you wanted? That would be a very sad and dangerous place to be.

Old man shouts at clouds's picture
@ Fishy

@ Fishy

Oh so THAT verse is out of context but the verse you quoted was directly aimed at 21st century atheists?

Sure it wasn't an allegory or a metaphor? Or do we need to examine the bible as a whole to guess its meaning?

Apart from your typically woeful ignorance of the origins of your religion you try and pull that shit on us?

Muppet.

Whitefire13's picture
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v

https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=-9EHdp1ynUU

Tried that Ray Comfort thingy...got put on hold (cool music)

Had a smoke while I waited...

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Whitefire13's picture
...maybe your lord and Satan

...maybe your lord and Satan are one and the same...

2 Cor 4:4
Satan, who is the god of this world, has blinded the minds of those who don’t believe. They are unable to see the glorious light of the Good News. They don’t understand this message about the glory of Christ, who is the exact likeness of God.

Fuck me... god hides it - Satan does too - Ray Comfort is a moron...

Calilasseia's picture
It's time to look at the

It's time to look at the contents of the in tray again.

Let's take a look at this shall we?

Thank you for your posts. You are however missing the point.

Oh how I love it when mythology fanboys purport to be in a position to lecture me on discoursive behaviour ... [end sarcasm mode].

Let's see how well this assertion pans out for you shall we, boy?

First, perhaps you should admit that you are all being, at best, mildly hypocritical.

And now we're moving into manifest ad hominem territory as well. This is getting better still.

Can you show me objective evidence for your theory which supposedly took place over millions of years?

Oh dear, SO many canards at once to deal with here. I'll start with the obvious one, namely, that evolution is an OBSERVED FACT, and has been observed taking place in POPULATIONS OF LIVING ORGANISMS. This includes documentation of speciation events, contained in numerous scientific papers in my current collection. Do tell us all, how many of the requisite papers would you like me to bring here, in order to illustrate this point?

Second, even if we ignore the evidence from present day living organisms, the palaeontological record is replete with entire series of organisms exhibiting precisely the morphological gradients that are predicted to appear in evolutionary theory. We have, for example, the sequence with Rhipidistian fishes such as Eusthenopteron at one end of the spectrum, and tetrapods such as Ichthyostega and Acanthostega at the other end. Then there's the sequence involving the emergence of birds from maniraptorian theropods, and I'm aware of at least 15 species in that sequence, though new ones have been added to the list since I last updated it. Then there's the sequence from Eohippus to the modern horse, which exhibits an exquisite sequence of morphological changes involving sequential loss of phalanges over a 55 million year period.

But the best part here, of course, is that scientists have not only been able to unearth the requisite fossils, but have also, in other research, alighted upon gene networks responsible for control of morphology, such as the HOX genes, the bmp genes, the wnt genes, the fgf gene family, and many more, including barx1, dlx1, dlx2, various Pax genes (Pax6 has been demonstrated to be a master control gene for eye evolution, for example), and scientists are able, by manipulating those genes experimentally, able to determine what sort of morphological modifications arise therefrom. As a corollary, it's now possible to perform experiments that resurrect ancestral genes, determine if those genes work, and furthermore, in the case of morphologically significant genes, determine what morphological changes are associated therewith.

An example thereof was provided fortuitously by a mutation in chickens, the so-called talpid2 mutation. Birds do not possess teeth in their beaks (though of course fossils such as Archaeopteryx demonstrate that their ancestors did still possess teeth), and so, it's been an interesting question as to why modern birds don't possess teeth. Well, it transpires that birds still possess the genes to develop teeth, but their expression is silenced by other genes. A mutation in one of those other genes, the talpid2 mutation, resulted in that tooth development pathway being re-enabled in the requisite mutants, and lo and behold, the teeth in question exhibits near-identical morphology to reptilian teeth. The paper in question is this one:

The Development Of Archosaurian First-Generation Teeth In A Chicken Mutant by Matthew P. Harris, Sean M. Hasso, Mark J. W. Ferguson and Joun F. Fallon, Current Biology, 16: 371-377 (21st February 2006)

Now I've covered that paper and its contents in detail elsewhere, and I can bring that reportage here if required.

Third, since it's manifestly obvious that you're attempting to inject another well-known duplicitous creationist canard here, I'll now kill that one off at source. The fatuous "where you there?" canard that creationist masturbation fantasists love to deploy, in a vain attempt to hand-wave away the supertanker volumes of evidence destroying their sad, mythology-based fantasies, fails dismally because, wait for it, we don't need to have been present in order to obtain evidence of past events. All we need is the fact that physical processes leave behind them physical evidence of their occurrence, and in many cases, that evidence is persistent over long periods of time.

As an example of how persistent said evidence can be, I have in my collection the paper describing the fossil red alga Bangiomorpha pubescens, which was found in strata dating to 1,200 million years before present, and provides reliable evidence of sexually reproducing eukaryotes arising that far back in geological time. The alga in question turned out to be practically the perfect candidate for the purpose, courtesy of the fact that Bangiacean red algae possess unique morphological traits, allowing their taxonomic status to be determined in a reliable and repeatable manner. The fossils in question also included fossilised gametophores, which in red algae have distinct morphological features allowing their differentiation into male and female gametophores via visual inspection alone.

Of course, it's also apposite to mention at this point, the hypocrisy endemic to creationists peddling the farcical "where you there?" canard, hoping no one will notice that it also applies to the assertions of their favourite mythology. Which of course becomes immediately problematic, because according to those very same assertions from your favourite mythology, no one was present to witness the hilarious goings on asserted to have taken place in Genesis before humans appeared.

But failures of this sort, are among the reasons that creationists are regarded in some quarters as regular suppliers of comedy entertainment.

Fourth, since you're also trying to inject the infamous "only a theory" canard here as well with your garbage, I'll remind you once again, of what the word theory means in scientific circles, viz:

Theory (science): An integrated explanation for a class of entities and interactions of interest, that has been tested experimentally to determine its accord with observational data, and found via such testing to be thus in accord.

Moving on ...

Or, will you admit that you have to accept that the theory is true, and you have to accept it by faith.

See the above? Read it and weep.

Oh, and as for the matter of the volume of evidence that evolutionary biologists bring to the table, it's contained in a minimum of one and a half million peer reviewed scientific papers, many of which document direct experimental test and validation of evolutionary postulates. Although my familiarity with the literature doesn't extend to the full 1½ million papers, for reasons that should be obvious even to a high school student, I still have a nice little library of approximately 4,000 papers in my collection, whose contents I am, in some cases, intimately familiar with. Here's a list of citations for just a small sample of those papers for you to dwell upon:

[1] Appearance of novel capabilities in organisms via mutation and selection - Nylonase enzymes in Japanese Flavobacterium species (among others):

[1] A New Nylon Oligomer Degradation Gene (nylC) On Plasmid pOAD2 From A Flavobacterium sp. by Seiji Negoro, Shinji Kakudo, Itaru Urabe, and Hirosuke Okadam, Journal of Bacteriology, 174(12): 7948-7953 (December 1992)

[2] A Plasmid Encoding Enzymes For Nylon Oligomer Degradation: Nucleotide Sequence And Analysis Of pOAD2 by Ko Kato, Kinya Ohtsuki, Yuji Koda, Tohru Maekawa, Tetsuya Yomo, Seiji Negoro and Itaru Urabe, Microbiology, 141: 2585-2590 (1995)

[3] Biodegradation Of Nylon Oligomers by Seiji Negoro, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 54: 461-466 (26th May 2000)

[4] Birth Of A Unique Enzyme From An Alternative Reading Frame Of The Pre-eEisted, Internally Repetitious Coding Sequence by Susumu Ohno, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 81: 2421-2425 (April 1984)

[5] DNA-DNA Hybridization Analysis Of Nylon Oligomer-Degradative Plasmid pOAD2: Identification Of The DNA Region Analogous To The Nylon Oligomer Degradation Gene by Seiji Negoro, Shunichi Nakamura and Hirosuke Okada, Journal of Bacteriology, 158(2): 419-424 (May 1984)

[6] Emergence Of Nylon Oligomer Degradation Enzymes In Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO Through Experimental Evolution by Irfan J. Prijambada, Seiji Negoro, Tetsuya Yomo and Itaru Urabe, Applied and Environmental Microbiology 61(5): 2020-2022 (May 1995)

[7] Insertion Sequence IS6100 On Plasmid pOAD2, Which Degrades Nylon Oligomers by Ko Kato, Kinya Ohtsuki, Hiroyuki Mitsuda, Tetsuya Yomo, Seiji Negoro and Itaru Urabe, Journal of Bacteriology, 176(4): 1197-1200 (February 1994)

[8] No Stop Codons In The Antisense Strands Of The Genes For Nylon Oligomer Degradation by Tetsuya Yomo, Itaru Urabe and Hirosuke Okada, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 89: 3780-3784 (May 1992)

[9] Nylon Oligomer Degradation Gene, nylC, On Plasmid pOAD2 From A Flavobacterium Strain Encodes Endo-Type 6-Aminohexanoate Oligomer Hydrolase: Purification And Characterisation Of The nylC Product by Shinji Kakudo, Seiji Negoro, Itaru Urabe and Hirosuke Okada, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 59(11): 3978-3980 (November 1993)

[10] Plasmid-Determined Enzymatic Degradation Of Nylon Oligomers by Seiji Negoro, Tomoyasu Taniguchi, Masaharu Kanaoka, Hiroyuki Kimura and Hirosuke Okada, Journal of Bacteriology, 155(1): 22-31 (July 1983)

[2] Appearance of novel capabilities in organisms via mutation and selection - Antifreeze Glycoproteins in Antarctic Notothenioid fishes:

[1] Convergent Evolution of Antifreeze Glycoproteins in Antarctic Notothenioid Fishes and Arctic Cod by Liangbiao Chen, Arthur L. deVries and Chi-Hing C. Cheng, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 94: 3817-3822 (1997)

[2] Evolution of an Antifreeze Glycoprotein by Liangbiao Chen and Chi-Hing C. Cheng, Nature, 401: 443-444 (1999)

[3] Evolution of Antifreeze Glycoprotein Gene from a Trypsinogen Gene in Antarctic Notothenioid Fishes by Liangbiao Chen, Arthur L. deVries and Chi-Hing C. Cheng, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 94: 3811-3816 (1997)

[4] Functional Antifreeze Glycoprotein Genes in Temperate-Water New Zealand Nototheniid Fishes Infer An Antarctic Evolutionary Origin by Chi-Hing C Cheng, Liangbiao Chen, Thomas J Near and Yumi Jin, Journal of Molecular and Biological Evolution, 20(11): 1897-1908 (2003)

[5] Nonhepatic Origin of Notothenioid Antifreeze Reveals Pancreatic Synthesis As Common Mechanism in Polar Fish Freezing Avoidance by Chi-Hing C Cheng, Paul A. Cziko and Clive W. Evans, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 103: 10491-10496 (2006)

[3] Evolution of specific features in humans:

[1] Accelerated Evolution Of The ASPM Gene Controlling Brain Size Begins Prior to Human Brain Expansion by Natalay Kouprina, Adam Pavlicek, Ganeshwaran H. Mochida, Gregory Solomon, William Gersch, Young-Ho Yoon, Randall Collura, Maryellen Ruvolo, J. Carl Barrett, C. Geoffrey Woods, Christopher A. Walsh, Jerzy Jurka and Vladimir Larionov, Public Library of Science Biology, 2(5): e126 (23rd March 2004)

[2] Evolution Of The Human ASPM Gene, A Major Determinant Of Brain Size by Jianzhi Ziang, Genetics, 165: 2063-2070 (December 2003)

[3] Evolution Of Olfactory Receptor Genes In The Human Genome by Yoshihito Niimua and Masatoshi Nei, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA., 100(21): 12235-12240 (14 October 2003)

[4] Evolution Of Vertebrate Olfactory Systems by H.L. Eisthen, Brain, Behaviour and Evolution, 50(4): 222-233 (1997).

[5] Human Brain Evolution: Insights from Microarrays by Todd M. Preuss, Mario Cáceres, Michael C. Oldham and Daniel H. Geschwind, Nature Reviews of Genetics, 5(11): 850-860 (November 2004)

[6] Molecular Evolution Of FOXP2, A Gene Involved In Speech And Language by Wolfgang Enard, Molly Przeworski, Simon E. Fisher, Cecilia S. L. Lai, Victor Wiebe, Takashi Kitano Anthony P. Monaco and Svante Pääbo, Nature, 418: 869-872 (22 August 2002)

[7] Molecular Evolution Of Microcephalin, A Gene Determining Human Brain Size by Yin-Qiu Wang and Bing Su, Human Molecular Genetics, 13(11): 1131-1137 (1st June 2004)

[8] Organisation And Evolution Of Olfactory Receptor Genes On Human Chromosome 11 by J.A. Buettner, G. Glusman, N. Ben-Arie, P. Ramos, D. Lancet and G.A. Evans, Genomics 53(1): 56-58 (1 Oct 1998)

[9] Primate Evolution Of An Olfactory Receptor Cluster: Diversification By Gene Conversion And Recent Emergence Of Pseudogenes by D Sharon, G Glusman,Y Pilpel, M Khen, F Gruetzner, T Haaf, D Lancet, Genomics, 61(1) 24-36 (1 Oct 1999)

[10] Sequence, Structure And Evolution Of A Complete Human Olfactory Receptor Gene Cluster by Gustavo Glusman, Alona Sosinsky, Edna Ben-Asher, Nili Avidan, Dina Sonkin, Anita Bahar, André Rosenthal, Sandra Clifton, Bruce Roe, Concepción Ferraz, Jacques Demaille and Doron Lancet, Genomics, 63(2) 227-245 (15 Jan 2000).

[11] The Evolution Of Mammalian Olfactory Genes by L. Issel-Tarver & J. Rine, Genetics, 145(1): 185-195 (January 1997)

[12] The Human Olfactory Subgenome: From Sequence To Structure To Evolution by Tania Fuchs, Gustavo Glasman, Shirley Horn-Saban, Doron Lancet and Yitzhak Pilpel, Human Genetics, 108: 1-13 (3 January 2001)

[4] Bird evolution and feathers:

[1] Avian Skin Development And The Evolutionary Origin Of Feathers by R.H. Sawyer & L.W. Knapp, Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular & Devlopmental Evolution, 298(1): 57-72 (15 Aug 2003)

[2] Bird Evolution by Julia Clarke and Kevin Middleton, Current Biology, 16(10): R350-354 (23 May 2006)

[3] Description Of The Earliest Fossil Penguin From South America And First Paleogene Vertebrate Locality Of Tierra Del Fuego, Argentina by Julia A. Clarke, Eduard B. Olivero and Pablo Puerta, American Museum of Natural History Novitates, No 3423, pp 1-19 (9 December 2003)

[4] Evolution Of The Morphological Innovations Of Feathers by Richard O. Prum, Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular & Developmental Evolution, 304(6): 570-579 (15 Nov 2005)

[5] The Evolutionary Origin And Diversification Of Feathers by Richard O. Prum and Alan H. Brush, Quarterly Review of Biology, 77(3):, 261-295 (September 2002)

[6] When Did Theropods Become Feathered? Evidence For Pre-Archaeopteryx Feathery Appendages by Martin Kundrát, Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular & Developmental Evolution, 302(4): 355-64 (15 July 2004)

[5] General vertebrate evolution and important associated features:

[1] Developmental Data And Phylogenetic Systematics: Evolution Of The Vertebrate Limb by Paula M. Mabee, Journal of American Zoology, 40: 789-800 (2000)

[2] Tetrapod Phylogeny Inferred from 18S And 28S Ribosomal RNA Sequences, And A Review Of The Evidence For Amniote Relationships by S. Blair Hedges, Kirk D. Moberg and Linda R. Maxson, Molecular Biology & Evolution, 7(6): 607-633 (1990) [NOTE: MINOR CORRECTION POSTED IN 1991]

[3] Theropod Forelimb Design And Evolution by Kevin M. Middleton and Stephe M. Gatesby. Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society, 128: 149-187 (2000)

[6] Phylogenetics and Molecular Phylogeny not covered in papers above, plus genetic and other insights into deep evolutionary time, including the reconstruction of ancient genes and proteins:

[1] Crystal Structure Of An Ancient Protein: Evolution By Conformational Epistasis by Eric A. Ortlund, Jamie T. Bridgham, Matthew R. Redinbo and Joseph W. Thornton, Science, 317: 1544-1548 (14 September 2007)

[2] Fractious Phylogenies by Thomas D Kocher, Nature, 423: 489-490 (29 May 2003)

[3] Inferring The Historical Patterns Of Biological Evolution by Mark Pagel, Nature, 401: 877-884 (28 October 1999)

[4] Estimating Metazoan Divergence Times With A Molecular Clock by Kevin J. Peterson, Jessica B. Lyons, Kristin S. Nowak, Carter M. Takacs, Matthew J. Wargo & Mark A. McPeek, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of America, 101(17): 6536-6541 (April 2004,)

[5] Evolution Of Amino Acid Frequencies In Proteins Over Deep Time: Inferred Order Of Introduction Of Amino Acids Into The Genetic Code by Dawn J. Brooks, Jacques R. Fresco, Arthur M. Lesk, and Mona Singh, Molecular Biology and Evolution 19: 1645-1655 (2002)

[6] Resurrecting Ancient Genes: Experimental Analysis Of Extinct Molecules by Joseph W. Thornton, Nature Reviews: Genetics, 5: 366-375 (5 May 2004)

[7] Taxonomic Congruence Versus Total Evidence, and Amniote Phylogeny Inferred from Fossils, Molecules and Morphology by Douglas J. Eernisse and Arnold G. Kluge, Molecular Biology & Evolution, 10(6): 1170-1195 (1993)

[8] The Past As The Key To The Present: Resurrection Of Ancient Proteins From Eosinophils by Steven A. Benner, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA., 99(8): 4760-4761 (16 April 2002)

[9] The Timing Of Eukaryotic Evolution: Does A Relaxed Molecular Clock Reconcile Proteins And fossils? by Emmanuel J.P. Douzery, Elizabeth A. Snell, Eric Bapteste, Frédéric Delsuc & Hervé Philiipe, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of America,, 101(43): 15386-15391 (October 2004)

[7] Blind Cave Fishes and their relevance to the evolution of the eye, plus a special paper on eye evolution:

[1] Adaptive Evolution Of Eye Degeneration In The Mexican Blind Cavefish by William. R. Jeffrey, Journal of Heredity, 96(3): 185-196 (Jan 2005)

[2] Cavefish As A Model System In Evolutionary Developmental Biology by William R. Jeffrey, Devlopmental Biology, 231:, 1-12 (1 Mar 2001)

[3] Hedgehog Signalling Controls Eye Degeneration In Blind Cavefish by Yoshiyuki Yamamoto, David W. Stock and William R. Jeffery, Nature, 431: 844-847 (14 Oct 2004)

[4] The Master Control Gene For Morphgenesis And Evolution Of The Eye by Walter J. Gehrig, Genes To Cells, 1: 11-15 (1996)

[5] Why Cavefish Are Blind by N.M. Tian & D.J. Price, Bioessays, 27: 235-238 (Mar 2005)

[8] Evolution of photosynthesis:

[1] Early Evolution Of Photosynthesis: Clues From Nitrogenase And Chlorophyll Iron Proteins by Donald H. Burke, John E. Hearst and Arend Sidow, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 90(15): 7134-7138 (1st August 1993)

[2] Evolution: When Did Photosynthesis Emerge On Earth? by David J. Des Marais, Science, 289: 1703-1705 (8th September 2000)

[3] Molecular Evidence For The Early Evolution Of Photosynthesis by Jin Xiong, William M. Fischer, Kazuhito Inoue, Masaaki Nakahara and Carl E. Bauer, Science, 289: 1724-1730 (8 September 2000)

[4] Origin And Early Evolution Of Photosynthesis by Robert E. Blankenship, Photosynthesis Research, 33(2): 91-111 (August 1992)

[5] Tracking Major Evolution Of Photosynthesis By Characterisation Of A Major Photosynthesis Gene Cluster From Heliobacillus mobilis by Jin Xiong, Kazuhto Inoue and Carl E. Bauer, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 95(25); 14581-14586 (8th December 1998)

[9] General evolutionary theory and supporting evidence:

[1] Empirical Fitness Landscapes Reveal Accessible Evolutionary Paths by Frank J. Poelwijk, Daniel J. Kiviet, Daniel M. Weinreich and Sander J. Tans, Nature, 445: 383-386 (25 January 2007)

[2] Evolution Of Biological Information by Thomas D. Schneider, Nucleic Acids Research, 28: 2794-2799 (2000)

[3] Genetic Variability, Twin Hybrids And Constant Hybrids In A Case Of Balanced Lethal Factors by Hermann Joseph Müller, Genetics, 3(5): 422-499 (1918)

[4] The Cost Of Natural Selection Revisited by Leonard Nunney, Ann. Zool. Fennici, 40: 185-194 (30 April 2003)

[10] Hominid Ancestry

[1] A New Primate From The Early Eocene Of Myanmar And The Asian Early Origin Of Anthropoids by J.-J. Jaeger, Tin Thein, M. Benammi, Y. Chaimanee, Aung Naing Soe, Thit Lwin, Than Tun, San Wai and S. Ducrocq, Science, 286: 528-520 (15 October 1999)

[2] Initial Sequencing Of The Chimpanzee Genome And Comparison With The Human Genome, The Chimpanzee Genome Sequencing Consortium (see paper for full list of 68 authors), Nature, 437: 69-87 (1 September 2005)

[3] The Oldest Known Anthropoid Postcranial Fossils And The Early Evolution Of Higher Primates by D.L. Gebo, M, D'Agosto, K.C. Beard, T, Qi and J Wang, Nature, 404: 276-78 (16 March 2002)

[11] Direct Experimental Tests Of Evolutionary Concepts

[1] A Model For Divergent Allopatric Speciation Of Polyploid Pteridophytes Resulting From Silencing Of Duplicate-Gene Expression by Charles R.E. Werth and Michael D. Windham, American Naturalist, 137(4): 515-526 (April 1991) - DEVELOPMENT OF A MODEL TO MATCH OBSERVED SPECIATION IN NATURE

[2] A Molecular Reexamination Of Diploid Hybrid Speciation Of Solanum raphanifolium by David M. Spooner, Kenneth. J. Sytsma and James F. Smith, Evolution, 45(3): 757-764 - DOCUMENTATION OF AN OBSERVED SPECIATION EVENT

[3] Cavefish As A Model System In Evolutionary Developmental Biology by William R. Jeffrey, Developmental Biology, 231:, 1-12 (1 Mar 2001) - contains experimental tests of hypotheses about eye evolution

[4] Chromosome Evolution, Phylogeny, And Speciation Of Rock Wallabies, by G. B. Sharman, R. L. Close and G. M. Maynes, Australian Journal of Zoology, 37(2-4): 351-363 (1991) - DOCUMENTATION OF OBSERVED SPECIATION IN NATURE

[5] Crystal Structure Of An Ancient Protein: Evolution By Conformational Epistasis by Eric A. Ortlund, Jamie T. Bridgham, Matthew R. Redinbo and Joseph W. Thornton, Science, 317: 1544-1548 (14 September 2007) - refers to the reconstruction of ancient proteins from extinct animals by back-tracking along the molecular phylogenetic trees and demonstrating that the proteins in question WORK

[6] Evidence For Rapid Speciation Following A Founder Event In The Laboratory by James R. Weinberg Victoria R. Starczak and Danielle Jörg, Evolution 46: 1214-1220 (15th January 1992) - EXPERIMENTAL GENERATION OF A SPECIATION EVENT IN THE LABORATORY

[7] Evolutionary Theory And Process Of Active Speciation And Adaptive Radiation In Subterranean Mole Rats, Spalax ehrenbergi Superspecies, In Israel by E. Nevo, Evolutionary Biology, 25: 1-125 - DOCUMENTATION OF OBSERVED SPECIATION IN NATURE

[8] Experimentally Created Incipient Species Of Drosophila by Theodosius Dobzhansky & Olga Pavlovsky, Nature 230: 289 - 292 (2nd April 1971) - EXPERIMENTAL GENERATION OF A SPECIATION EVENT IN THE LABORATORY

[9] Founder-Flush Speciation On Drosophila pseudoobscura: A Large Scale Experiment by Agustí Galiana, Andrés Moya and Francisco J. Alaya, Evolution 47: 432-444 (1993) EXPERIMENTAL GENERATION OF A SPECIATION EVENT IN THE LABORATORY

[10] Genetics Of Natural Populations XII. Experimental Reproduction Of Some Of the Changes Caused by Natural Selection by Sewall Wright & Theodosius Dobzkansky, Genetics, 31(2): 125-156 (1946) - direct experimental tests of natural selection mechanisms

[11] Hedgehog Signalling Controls Eye Degeneration In Blind Cavefish by Yoshiyuki Yamamoto, David W. Stock and William R. Jeffery, Nature, 431: 844-847 (14 Oct 2004) - direct experimental test of theories about eye evolution and the elucidation of the controlling genes involved

[12] Initial Sequencing Of The Chimpanzee Genome And Comparison With The Human Genome, The Chimpanzee Genome Sequencing Consortium (see paper for full list of 68 authors), Nature, 437: 69-87 (1 September 2005) - direct sequencing of the chimpanzee genome and direct comparison of this genome with the previously sequenced human genome, whereby the scientists discovered that fully twenty-nine percent of the orthologous proteins of humans and chimpanzees are IDENTICAL

[13] Origin Of The Superflock Of Cichlid Fishes From Lake Victoria, East Africa by Erik Verheyen, Walter Salzburger, Jos Snoeks and Axel Meyer, Science, 300: 325-329 (11 April 2003) - direct experimental determination of the molecular phylogeny of the Lake Victoria Superflock, including IDENTIFYING THE COMMON ANCESTOR OF THE 350+ SPECIES IN QUESTION and NAMING THAT ANCESTOR as Haplochromis gracilior

[14] Phagotrophy By A Flagellate Selects For Colonial Prey: A Possible Origin Of Multicellularity by Martin.E. Boraas, Dianne.B. Seale and Joseph .E. Boxhorn, Evolutionary Ecology 12(2): 153-164 (February 1998 ) - direct experimental test of hypotheses about the origins of multicellularity

[15] Pollen-Mediated Introgression And Hybrid Speciation In Louisiana Irises by Michael L. Arnold, Cindy M. Buckner and Jonathan J. Robinson, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 88(4): 1398-1402 (February 1991) - OBSERVATION OF A SPECIATION EVENT IN NATURE

[16] Protein Engineering Of Hydrogenase 3 To Enhance Hydrogen Production by Toshinari. Maeda, Viviana. Sanchez-Torres and Thomas. K. Wood, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 79(1): 77-86 (May 2008) - DIRECT EXPERIMENTAL APPLICATION OF EVOLUTION IN THE LABORATORY TO PRODUCE A NEW BIOTECHNOLOGY PRODUCT

[17] Resurrecting Ancient Genes: Experimental Analysis Of Extinct Molecules by Joseph W. Thornton, Nature Reviews: Genetics, 5: 366-375 (5 May 2004) - direct experimental reconstruction in the laboratory of ancient proteins from extinct animals

[18] Sexual Isolation Caused By Selection For Positive And Negative Phototaxis And Geotaxis In Drosophila pseudoobscura by E. del Solar, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 56: 484-487 (1966) - direct experimental test of selection mechanisms and their implications for speciation

[19] Speciation By Hybridisation In Heliconius Butterflies by Jesús Mavárez, Camilo A. Salazar, Eldredge Bermingham, Christian Salcedo, Chris D. Jiggins and Mauricio Linares, Nature, 441: 868-871 (15th June 2006) - DETERMINATION OF A SPECIATION EVENT IN NATURE, FOLLOWED BY LABOARTORY REPRODUCTION OF THAT SPECIATION EVENT, AND CONFIRMATION THAT THE LABORATORY INDIVIDUALS ARE INTERFERTILE WITH THE WILD TYPE INDIVIDUALS

[20] Speciation By Hybridization In Phasmids And Other Insects By Luciano Bullini and Guiseppe Nascetti, Canadian Journal of Zoology 68(8): 1747-1760 (1990) - OBSERVATION OF A SPECIATION EVENT IN NATURE

[21] The Gibbons Speciation Mechanism by S. Ramadevon and M. A. B. Deaken, Journal of Theoretical Biology, 145(4): 447-456 (1991) - DEVELOPMENT OF A MODEL ACCOUNTING FOR OBSERVED INSTANCES OF SPECIATION

[22] The Master Control Gene For Morphogenesis And Evolution Of The Eye by Walter J. Gehrig, Genes to Cells, 1: 11-15, 1996 - direct experimental test of hypotheses concerning eye evolution including the elucidation of the connection between the Pax6 gene and eye morphogenesis, and the experimental manipulation of that gene to control eye development

[23] The Past As The Key To The Present: Resurrection Of Ancient Proteins From Eosinophils by Steven A. Benner, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA., 99(8): 4760-4761 (16 April 2002) - direct experimental reconstruction of ancient proteins from extinct animals

[12] Documentation Of Speciation Events In Nature And The Laboratory, And Related Theoretical Work

[1] A Model For Divergent Allopatric Speciation Of Polyploid Pteridophytes Resulting From Silencing Of Duplicate-Gene Expression by Charles R.E. Werth and Michael D. Windham, American Naturalist, 137(4): 515-526 (April 1991) - DEVELOPMENT OF A MODEL TO MATCH OBSERVED SPECIATION IN NATURE

[2] A Molecular Reexamination Of Diploid Hybrid Speciation Of Solanum raphanifolium by David M. Spooner, Kenneth. J. Sytsma and James F. Smith, Evolution, 45(3): 757-764 - DOCUMENTATION OF AN OBSERVED SPECIATION EVENT

[3] A Mouse Speciation Gene Encodes A Meiotic Histone H3 Methyltransferase by Ondrej mihola, Zdenek Trachtulec, Cestmir Vlcek, John C. Scimenti and Jiri Forejt, Science, 323: 350-351 (16th January 2009) - DETERMINING THE FUNCTION OF A GENE DIRECTLY IMPLICATED IN SPECIATION AND FAILURE OF INTERFERTILITY BETWEEN DIVERGING POPULATIONS

[4] A Rapidly Evolving MYB-Related Protein Causes Species Isolation In Drosophila by Daniel A. Barbash, Dominic F. Siino, Arron M. Tarone and John Roote, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 110(9): 5302-5307 (29th April 2003) - DETERMINING THE BEHAVIOUR OF A GENE DIRECTLY IMPLICATED IN SPECIATION AND FAILURE OF INTERFERTILITY BETWEEN DIVERGING POPULATIONS

[5] A Screen For Recessive Speciation Genes Expressed In The Gametes Of F1 Hybrid Yeast by Duncan Greig, Public Library of Science Genetics, 3(2): e21 (February 2007) - Determining the presence of speciation genes in a primitive eukaryote, and the roles of any genes thus located

[6] Adaptive Divergence And The Evolution Of Reproductive Isolation In The Wild: An Empirical Demonstration Using Introduced Sockeye Salmon by Andrew P. Hendry, Genetics, 112-113: 515-534 (2001) - DIRECT EXPERIMENTAL TEST OF REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION AND ITS ROLE IN SPECIATION EVENTS

[7] Adaptive Evolution And Explosive Speciation: The Cichlid Fish Model by Thomas D. Kocher, Nature Reviews Genetics, 5: 288-298 (April 2004) - DISCUSSION OF METHODS OF EMPIRICAL DEMONSTRATION OF SPECIATION INCLUDING MOLECULAR ANALYSES

[8] Chromosomal Rearrangements And Speciation by Loren H. Rieseberg, TRENDS In Ecology & Evolution, 16(7): 351-358 (July 2001) - determination of the input that chromosomal rearrangements may have upon speciation evnets

[9] Chromosome Evolution, Phylogeny, And Speciation Of Rock Wallabies by G. B. Sharman, R. L. Close and G. M. Maynes, Australian Journal of Zoology, 37(2-4): 351-363 (1991) - DOCUMENTATION OF OBSERVED SPECIATION IN NATURE

[10] Evidence For Rapid Speciation Following A Founder Event In The Laboratory by James R. Weinberg Victoria R. Starczak and Danielle Jörg, Evolution 46: 1214-1220 (15th January 1992) - EXPERIMENTAL GENERATION OF A SPECIATION EVENT IN THE LABORATORY

[11] Evolutionary Theory And Process Of Active Speciation And Adaptive Radiation In Subterranean Mole Rats, Spalax ehrenbergi Superspecies, In Israel by E. Nevo, Evolutionary Biology, 25: 1-125 - DOCUMENTATION OF OBSERVED SPECIATION IN NATURE

[12] Experimentally Created Incipient Species Of Drosophila by Theodosius Dobzhansky & Olga Pavlovsky, Nature 230: 289 - 292 (2nd April 1971) - EXPERIMENTAL GENERATION OF A SPECIATION EVENT IN THE LABORATORY

[13] Founder-Flush Speciation On Drosophila pseudoobscura: A Large Scale Experiment by Agustí Galiana, Andrés Moya and Francisco J. Alaya, Evolution 47: 432-444 (1993) EXPERIMENTAL GENERATION OF A SPECIATION EVENT IN THE LABORATORY

[14] Gene Duplication And Speciation In Drosophila: Evidence From The Odysseus Locus by Chau-Ti Ting, Shun-Chern Tsaur, Sha Sun, William E. Browne, Yung-Chia Chen, Nipam H. Patel and Chung-I Wu, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 101(33): 12232-12235 (17th August 2004) - EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF THE ROLE OF A DEFINED SPECIATION GENE AND DUPLICATION THEREOF IN SPECIATION EVENTS

[15] Gene Transfer, Speciation, And The Evolution Of Bacterial Genomes by Jeffrey G. Lawrence, Current Opinion in Microbiology, 2(5): 519-523 (October 1999) - determining the role of horizontal gene transfer in the development of new bacterial serotypes

[16] Genes And Speciation by Chung-I Wu, Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 14: 889-891 (2001) - development of a rigorous theory of reproductive isolation taking into account incomplete interfertility failure events

[17] Hybrid Lethal Systems In The Drosophila melanogaster Species Complex. II. The Zygotic Hybrid Rescue (Zhr) Gene Of Drosophila melanogaster by Kyoichi Sawamura, Masa-Toshi Yamamoto and Takao K. Watanabe, Genetics, 133: 307-313 (February 1993) - EMPIRICAL DETERMINATION OF THE ROLE OF A NAMED SPECIATION GENE IN SPECIFIC LIVING ORGANISMS

[18] Hybridisation And Adaptive Radiation by Ole Seehausen, TRENDS In Ecology & Evolution, 19(4): 198-207 (April 2004) - development of a rigorous theory underpinning hybrid speciation and SPECIFICATION OF EMPIRICAL TESTS OF THAT THEORY

[19] Incipient Speciation By Sexual Isolation in Drosophila: Concurrent Evolution At Multiple Loci by Chau-Ti Ting, Aya Takahashi and Chung-I Wu, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 98(12): 6709-6713 (5th June 2001) - EMPIRICAL DEMONSTRATION OF THE EXISTENCE OF GENES GOVERNING MALE MATING SUCCESS AND FEMALE MATING PREFERENCE LEADING TO SEXUAL SELECTION AND SPECIATION

[20] Laboratory Experiments On Speciation: What Have We Learned In 40 Years? by William R. Rice and Ellen E. Hostert, Evolution, 47(6):1637-1653 (December 1993) - review of speciation literature and determination of the validity of reproductive isolation as a speciation mechanism

[21] Models Of Evolution Of Rperoductive Isolation by Masatoshi Nei, Takeo Maruyama and Chung-I Wu, Genetics, 103: 557-559 (March 1983) - DIRECT EMPIRICAL TEST OF MODELS OF REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, AND ESTABLISHMENT OF CORRELATION WITH REAL WORLD DATA

[22] Phylogenetics And Speciation by Timothy G. Barraclough and Sean Nee, TRENDS in Ecology & Evolution, 16(7): 391-399 (July 2001) - Determination of rigorous methods for using phylogenetic analyses to establish speciation events

[23] Pollen-Mediated Introgression And Hybrid Speciation In Louisiana Irises by Michael L. Arnold, Cindy M. Buckner and Jonathan J. Robinson, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 88(4): 1398-1402 (February 1991) - OBSERVATION OF A SPECIATION EVENT IN NATURE

[24] Premating Isolation Is Determined by Larval Rearing Substrates in Cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis. IV. Correlated Responses In Behavioral Isolation To Artificial Selection On A Life-History Trait by William J. Etges, The American Naturalist, 152(1): 129-144 (July 1998) - DIRECT EMPIRICAL TEST OF BEHAVIOURAL ISOLATION AS A MECHANISM DRIVING SPECIATION

[25] Rapid Evolution Of Postzygotic Reproductive Isolation In Stalk-Eyed Flies by Sarah J. Christianson, John G. Swallow and Gerald S. Wilkinson, Evolution, 59(4): 849-857 (12th January 2005) - DIRECT EMPIRICAL TEST AND MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF SEXUAL SELECTION AND HYBRID STERILITY AS MECHANISMS DRIVING SPECIATION

[26] Role Of Gene Interactions In Hybrid Speciation: Evidence From Ancient And Experimental Hybrids by Loren H. Rieseberg, Barry Sinervo, C. Randall Linder, Mark C. Ungerer and Dulce M. Arias, Science, 272: 741-745 (3rd May 1996) - DIRECT EXPERIMENTAL TESTS OF HYPOTHESES REGARDING HYBRID SPECIATION

[27] Searching For Speciation Genes by Roger Butlin and Michael G. Ritchie, Nature, 412: 31-33 (5th July 2001) - DIRECT EMPIRICAL SEARCH FOR GENES IMPLICATED IN SPECIATION EVENTS

[28] Selfish Operons And Speciation By Gene Transfer by Jeffrey G. Lawrence, Trends in Microbiology, 5(9): 355-359 (September 1997) - EMPIRICAL DETERMINATION OF MECHANISMS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF NEW BACTERIAL SEROTYPES

[29] Sex-Related Genes, Directional Sexual Selection, And Speciation by Alberto Civetta and Rama S. Singh, Molecular & Biological Evolution, 15(7): 901-909 (1998) - EMPIRICAL DETERMINATION OF THE SHAPING OF GENES IMPLICATED IN SPECIATION VIA SEXUAL SELECTION

[30] Sexual Selection, Reproductive Isolation And The Genic View Of Speciation by J. J. M. Van Alphen and Ole Seehausen, Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 14: 874-875 (2001) - application of known speciation mechanisms to the Lake Victoria superflock of Cichlid fishes

[31] Speciation Along Environmental Gradients by Michael Doebeli and Ulf Dieckmann, Nature, 421: 259-264 (16th January 2003) - determination of the effects of environmental pressures upon the outcome of speciation events

[32] Speciation And The Evolution Of Gamete Recognition Genes: Pattern And Process by S. R. Palumbi, Heredity, 102: 66-76 (2009) - determination of the role of gamete recognition genes in speciation events, and their rapid evolution in segregated populations

[33] Speciation By Hybridisation In Heliconius Butterflies by Jesús Mavárez, Camilo A. Salazar, Eldredge Bermingham, Christian Salcedo, Chris D. Jiggins and Mauricio Linares, Nature, 441: 868-871 (15th June 2006) - DETERMINATION OF A SPECIATION EVENT IN NATURE, FOLLOWED BY LABOARTORY REPRODUCTION OF THAT SPECIATION EVENT, AND CONFIRMATION THAT THE LABORATORY INDIVIDUALS ARE INTERFERTILE WITH THE WILD TYPE INDIVIDUALS

[34] Speciation By Hybridization In Phasmids And Other Insects By Luciano Bullini and Guiseppe Nascetti, Canadian Journal of Zoology 68(8): 1747-1760 (1990) - OBSERVATION OF A SPECIATION EVENT IN NATURE

[35] Speciation By Postzygotic Isolation: Forces, Genes And Molecules by H. Allen Orr and Daven C. Presgraves, Bioessays, 22(12): 1085-1094 (2000) - EMPIRICAL DETERMINATION OF THE EXISTENCE OF SPECIATION GENES AND THEIR ROLE IN INTERFERTILITY FAILURE BETWEEN SEGREGATED POPULATIONS

[36] Speciation Genes by H. Allen Orr, John P. Masly and Daven C. Presgraves, Current Opinion in Genetics & Development, 14: 675-679 (2004) - DETERMINATION OF THE EXISTENCE OF SPECIATION GENES AND THEIR SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DARWINIAN SELECTION

[37] Speciation, Hybrid Zones And Phylogeography - Or Seeing Genes In Space And Time by Godfrey M. Hewitt, Molecular Ecology, 10: 537-549 (2001) - review of origins of speciation theory, current developments, and application to past and present speciation events

[38] Speciation By Habitat Specialisation: The Evolution Of Reproductive Isolation As A Correlated Character by William R. Rice, Evolutionary Ecology, 1: 301-314 (1987) - LINKING OF SPECIATION EVENTS TO NICHE MOBILITY AND ADAPTATION FOR NEW NICHES

[39] The Evolution Of Asymmetry In Sexual Isolation: A Model And Test Case by Stevan J. Arnold, Paul A. Verrell and Stephen G. Tilley, Evolution, 50(3): 1024-1033 (June 1996) - DEVELOPMENT OF AN EXTENDED MODEL OF SEXUAL SELECTION FOLLOWED BY EMPIRICAL TEST OF THAT MODEL AND DETERMINATION OF CORRELATION WITH A REAL WORLD POPULATION DIVERGENCE EVENT

[40] The Evolution Of Reproductive Isolation Through Sexual Conflict by Oliver Y. Martin and David J. Hosken, Nature,423: 979-982 (26th June 2003) - DIRECT EXPERIMENTAL TEST OF SEXUAL CONFLICT AS A DRIVER OF SPECIATION

[41] The Evolutionary Genetics Of Speciation by Jerry A. Coyne and H. Allen Orr, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Part B, 353: 287-305 (1998) review of recent advances in speciation theory and empirical results

[42] The Genetic Basis Of Reproductive Isolation: Insights From Drosophila by H. Allen Orr, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 102 supplement 1: 6522-6526 (3rd May 2005) - review of work on speciation genes and the empirical determination of their roles

[43] The Genic View Of The Process Of Speciation by Chung-I Wu, Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 14: 851-865 (2001) - review of theory of speciation including renewed insights into Darwin's own early view of the topic, and how this correlates to a hitherto unforeseen extent with modern genetic results

[44] The Gibbons Speciation Mechanism by S. Ramadevon and M. A. B. Deaken, Journal of Theoretical Biology, 145(4): 447-456 (1991) - DEVELOPMENT OF A MODEL ACCOUNTING FOR OBSERVED INSTANCES OF SPECIATION

[45] The Phylogeny Of Closely Related Species As Revealed By The Genealogy Of A Speciation Gene, Odysseus by Chau-Ti Ting, Shun-Chern Tsaur and Chung-I Wu, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 97(10): 5313-5316 (9th May 2000) - EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF A PREDICTION ABOUT SPECIATION MECHANISMS AT THE MOLECULAR LEVEL

[46] The Population Genetics Of Speciation: The Evolution Of Hybrid Incompatibilities by H. Allen Orr, Genetics, 139: 1805-1813 (April 1995) - development of a gene-based model for speciation and the implications of the results obtained from that model for speciation research

[47] The Theory Of Speciation Via The Founder Principle by Alan R. Templeton, Genetics, 94:1011-1038 (April 1980) - development of a model for founder speciation, and DIRECT EXPERIMENTAL TEST of that model by applying it to a real world organism

[48] What Does Drosophila Genetics Tell Us About Speciation? by James Mallet, TRENDS in Ecology & Evolution, 21(7): 386-393 (July 2006) - Comparison of Drosophila data with data from other organisms to produce a more complete picture of speciation mechanics

[13] De Novo Gene Origination

[1] Extensive De Novo Genomic Variation In Rice Introduced By Introgression From Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.) by Yong-Ming Wang, Zhen-Ying dong, Zhoing-Juan Zhang, Xiu-Yun Lin, Ye Shen, Daowei Zhou and Bao Liu, Genetics, 170: 1945-1956 (August 2005) [full paper downloadable from here]

[2] De Novo Origination Of A New Protein-Coding Gene In Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Jing Cai, Ruoping Zhao, Huifeng Jiang and Wen Wang, Genetics, 179: 487-496 (May 2008) [full paper downloadable from here]

[3] Evidence For De Novo Evolution Of Testis-Expressed Genes In The Drosophila yakuba/Drosophila erecta Clade by David J. Begun, Heather A. Lindfors, Andrew D. Kern and Corbin D. Jones, Genetics, 176: 1131-1137 (June 2007) [full paper downloadable from here]

[4] Evolution Of Enzymes For The Metabolism Of New Chemical Inputs Into The Environment by Lawrence P. Wackett, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 279(40): 41259-41264 (1st October 2004) [full paper downloadable from here]

[5] Evolution Of Hydra, A Recently Evolved Testis-Expressed Gene With Nine Alternative First Exons In Drosophila melanogaster by Shou-Tao Chen, Hsin-Chien Cheng, Daniel A. Barbash and Hsiao-Pei Yang, PLoS Genetics, 3(7): 1131-1143 (July 2007) [full paper downloadable from here]

[6] Extensive De Novo Genomic Variation In Rice Introduced By Introgression From Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.) by Yong-Ming Wang, Zhen-Ying dong, Zhoing-Juan Zhang, Xiu-Yun Lin, Ye Shen, Daowei Zhou and Bao Liu, Genetics, 170: 1945-1956 (August 2005) [full paper downloadable from here]

[7] Novel Genes Derived From Noncoding DNA In Drosophila melanogaster Are Frequently X-Linked And Exhibit Testis-based Expression by Mia T. Levine, Corbin D. Jones, Andrew D. Kern, Heather A. Lindfors and David J. Begun, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 103(26): 9935-9939 (27th June 2006) [full paper downloadable from here]

[8] Recently Evolved Genes Identified From Drosophila yakuba And D. erecta Accessory Gland Expressed Sequence Tags by David J. Begun, Heather A. Lindfors, Melissa E. Thompson and Alisha K. Holloway, Genetics, 172: 1675-1681 (March 2006) [full paper downloadable from here]

[14] Evolvability Of Genetic Code And Evidence For Evolution Thereof

[1] A Co-Evolution Theory Of The Genetic Code by J. Tze-Fei Wong, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 72(5): 1909-1912 (May 1975)

[2] A Mechanism For The Association Of Amino Acids With Their Codons And The Origin Of The Genetic Code by Shelley D. Copley, Eric Smith & Harold J. Morowitz, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 102(12): 4442-4447 (22nd March 2005)

[3] An Expanded Genetic Code With A Functional Quadruplet Codon by J. Christopher Anderson, Ning Wu, Stephen W. Santoro, Vishva Lakshman, David S. King & Peter G. Schultz, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 101(20): 7566-7571 (18th May 2004)

[4] Collective Evolution And The Genetic Code by Kalin Vetsigian, Carl Woese and Nigel Goldenfeld, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 103(28): 10696-10701 (11th July 2006)

[5] Emergence Of A Code In The Polymerization Of Amino Acids Along RNA Templates by Jean Lehmann, Michael Cibils & Albert Libchaber, PLoS One, 4(6): e5773 (3rd June 2009) DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0005773

[6] Encoding Multiple Unnatural Amino Acids Via Evolution Of A Quadruplet Decoding Ribosome by Heinz Neumann, Kaihang Wang, Lloyd Davis, Maria Garcia-Alai & Jason W. Chin, Nature, 464: 441-444 (18th March 2010)

[7] Evolution And Multilevel Optimisation Of The Genetic Code by Tobias Bollenbach, Kalin Vetsigian & Roy Kishony, Genome Research (Cold Spring Harbour Press), 17: 401-404 (2007)

[8] Evolution Of Amino Acid Frequencies In Proteins Over Deep Time: Inferred Order Of Introduction of Amino Acids Into The Genetic Code by Dawn J. Brooks, Jacques R. Fresco, Arthur M. Lesk & Mona Singh, Molecular & Biological Evolution, 19(10):1645-1655 (2002)

[9] Evolution Of The Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases And The Origin Of The Genetic Code by R. Wetzel, Journal of Molecular Evolution, 40: 545-550 (1995)

[10] Evolution Of The Genetic Code: Partial Optimization Of A Random Code For Robustness To Translation Error In A Rugged Fitness Landscape by Artem S Novozhilov, Yuri I Wolf and Eugene V Koonin, Biology Direect, 2: 24 (23rd October 2007) DOI:10.1186/1745-6150-2-24

[11] Exceptional Error Minimization In Putative Primordial Genetic Codes by Artem S Novozhilov & Eugene V. Koonin, Biology direct, 4(1): 44 (2009)

[12] Expanding The Genetic Code Of Escherichia coli by Lei Wang, Angsar Brock, Brad Herberich & Peter G. Schultz, Science, 292: 498-500 (20th April 2001)

[13] Experimental Rugged Fitness Landscape In Protein Sequence Space by Yuuki Hayashi, Takuyo Aita, Hitoshi Toyota, Yuzuru Husimi, Itaru Urabe & Tetsuya Yomo, PLoS One, 1(1): e96 (2006) DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0000096

[14] Importance Of Compartment Formation For A Self-Encoding System by Tomoaki Matsuura, Muneyoshi Yamaguchi, Elizabeth P. Ko-Mitamura, Yasufumi Shima, Itaru Urabe & Tetsuya Yomo, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 99(11): 7514-7517 (28th May 2002)

[15] On The Origin Of The Genetic Code: Signatures Of Its Primordial Complementarity In tRNAs And Aaminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases by S. N. Rodin and A. S. Rodin, Heredity, 100: 341-355 (5th March 2008)

[16] Origin And Evolution Of The Genetic Code: The Universal Enigma by Eugene V. Koonin & Artem S. Novozhilov, IUBMB Life, 61(2): 99-111 (February 2009) (Also available at arXiv)

[17] Protein Evolution With An Expanded Genetic Code by Chang C. Liu, Antha V. Mack, Meng-Lin Tsao, Jeremy H. Mills, Hyun Soo Lee, Hyeryun Choe, Michael Farzan, Peter G. Schultz & Vaughn V. Smider, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105(46): 17688-17693 (18th November 2008)

[18] Protein Stability Promotes Evolvability by Jesse D. Bloom, Sy T. Labthavikul, Christopher R. Otey & Frances H. Arnold, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 103(15): 5869-5874 (11th April 2006)

[19] Reassigning Cysteine In The Genetic Code Of Escherichia coli by Volker Döring and Philippe Marlière, Genetics, 150: 543-551 (October 1998)

[20] Recent Evidence For Evolution Of The Genetic Code by Syozo Osawa, Thomas H, Jukes, Kimitsuna Watanabe & Akira Muto, Microbiological Reviews, 56(1): 229-264 (March 1992)

[21] Rewiring The Keyboard: Evolvability Of The Genetic Code by Robin D. Knight, Stephen J. Freeland & Laura F. Landweber, Nature Reviews Genetics, 2: 41-58 (January 2001)

[22] Thawing The Frozen Accident by C. W. Carter Jr., Heredity, 100: 339-340 (13th February 2008)

[23] A Simple Model Based On Mutation And Selection Explains Trends In Codon And Amino-Acid Usage And GC Composition Within And Across Genomes by Robin D. Knight, Stephen J. Freeland & Laura F. Landweber, Genome Biology, 2(4): research0010.1–0010.13 (22nd March 2001)

This list is by no means complete, because over eighteen thousand critically robust peer reviewed papers were published in evolutionary biology in 2007 alone. The number of papers published in the subject since Darwin first published The Origin of Species probably exceeds a million or so, if someone were ever to perform the requisite accounting.

Even if you want to have faith in your theory of evolution

And with this remark, you're already demonstrating that you're wading into entirely familiar territory I see occupied all the time by creationists, - the territory marked by the intersection of the Venn Diagram circles labelled "stupidity" and "duplicity".

all of your research, at best, can only provide an explanation of what happened AFTER life already appeared on the scene.

Oh dear. Look, boys and girls, the mythology fanboy is now wading into the usual tiresome apologetic drivel they peddle when abiogenesis is mentioned!

He don't know me very well, do he? [End Bugs Bunny mode]

If you're going to venture into that arena, boy, I've a nice collection of scientific papers to drop on your head in that discipline as well, and from a very great height if need be. In short, don't even think of peddling canards in this field, because they will be dealt with ruthlessly.

What you provide is a very close - and I mean, your eye pressed up against the canvas (how is that for clarity?) - examination of the brush strokes of a painting which already exists. Do you admit you have no idea how life came to be?

Oh dear.

Guess what, mythology fanboy?

There are something like 100,000 or more peer reviewed papers, published in the field of prebiotic chemistry research, that already provide huge insights into the likely origins of life on Earth. Which scientists postulated to be rooted in chemistry for one very good reason, namely that life IS chemistry writ large. Millions of chemical reactions are taking place inside your body right now, and if some of those reactions STOP, you DIE.

Now it just so happens that I've already provided an (admittedly simplified) exposition on the requisite research and its current findings here on this forum, and I'll leave it as an exercise for you to find it. Be aware that even for that highly simplifuied excursion into the research, I was required to produce no less than seventy paper citations. A full treatment would take that citation list well into four figures.

Furthermore, whenever scientists have postulated that a given chemical reaction is implicated in the origin of life, they have published papers demonstrating that the reaction in question works, and works under prebiotic conditions of the sort for which geological evidence exists.

By contrast, what do you have to offer? Blind assertions to the effect that it was all the work of an imaginary magic man from a sad mythology, written by piss-stained Bronze Age incels who were too stupid to count correctly the number of legs that an insect possesses, and who thought genetics was controlled by coloured sticks.

Rightly are you prophesied of in The Bible, "Professing to be wise, they became fools..." Romans 1:22 (that's for all of you, by the way)

And if you think regurgitating blind assertions from your goat herder mythology, is going to impress anyone here who paid attention in class, then you're in for a big surprise, boy. Because, wait for it, those of us who paid attention in class don't even regard your sad little mythology as anything other than fifth rate, even by the standards endemic to mythologies and their generation. We don't even regard your mythology as a good mythology. The Greeks were way more sophisticated in this matter than the belligerent prosecutors of Lebensraum that scribbled your pathetic offering, and indeed, the Greeks even exhibited an understanding of the Fourth Estate in some of their writings. Though this is entierly consonant with their having produced seminal advances in mathematics, the physical sciences and philosophy, which were impressive by the standards of the era in which they lived. Contrast this, with the sad spectacle your goat herders present in their scribblings, within which they thought devoting ten whole chapters of Leviticus, to the fatuous business of devising ever more rococo ways of setting fire to small furry animals in order to please their imaginary magic man, was a good idea. While your goat herders were wasting their time on this, the Greeks were delivering Euclid and Aristotle.

But, since you deem yourselves to be of superior intellect, I challenge you to go and refute the members of the scientific community who argue for creation at https://reasons.org/

HA HA HA HA HA HA HA!!!!!

"Membners of the scientific community" my fucking arse. They're ALL polemical pedlars of vacuous creationist apologetics, and they'd last about five nanoseconds in front of a panel of real scientists.

I also challenge all of you to ask yourselves, and be honest with yourselves, why have you rejected the God of the Bible?

Because none of us here regard mythology uncritically as fact, in the same absurd manner that you do. And it's not just your sad little pre-scientific mythology we treat as such, we treat them all in the same manner. Your mythology isn't special in this regard. Indeed, as I've just expounded above, we regard your mythology as pathetic even by the standards inherent in the business of myth-making. Pretty much the same comment applies to several other mythologies that are manifestly fatuous and riddled with absurdities.

Indeed, that's the whole fucking problem, boy - all you have to offer is blind mythological assertions, and from a bad mythology at that.

Keep in mind that criminals tend to avoid police offers and they tend to abhor the judge.

Oh look, ad hominem masquerading as purported "wisdom".

Apparently you forgot to take note of the fact that ther is evidence for the existence of police officers and judges, when peddling this tripe. Unlike your sad little cartoon magic man. Oh, and by the way, if you're going to go down the road of insinuating criminality on the part of those of us who paid attention in class, I've a nice little list of "megachurch pastors" and other so-called "men of god" who featured in the news after being arrested for playing "Hide the Sausage" with 12 year old girls, which I can bring out in response if you want that sort of knife fight.

Could it be that there is sin in your lives that you love more than the truth?

Unlike those "megachurch pastors" in the list I mentioned above, I've never wanted to fuck 12 year old girls, and neither have the veterans here.

So you can shove this latest ad hominem of your where the sun doesn't shine.

I have shared the Gospel with you already on this site, but will do so again.

Don't bother. We've read your bad mythology from cover to cover, and it stinks. A fair precentage thereof is nothing more than a post hoc political "justification" on the part of its psychotic goat herder authors, for the prosecution of bloody Lebensraum wars and the taking of underage girls as sex slaves.

Oh, and if your cartoon magic man was something other than the product of the rectal passages of the same psychotic goat herders, this entity would be a monster beyond compare, and would be so according to the very assertions of your mythology. A point which you appear to be incapable of understanding.

What will you do on the Day of Judgement when God pours out His wrath on this sinful and rebellious world?

Not going to happen. Stop pretending that fiction is real, and fucking grow up.

I am not judging you, as I would be twice dead if I got what I deserved. Please keep that in mind. We are all on the same playing field.

Except you're hallucinating features of that playing field that don't exist.

God cannot simply overlook sin, as that would make Him crooked, which He is not. But He Himself paid the fine for you, took all that wrath and suffered it in your place. That is what Jesus (God in the flesh) did on the cross. He was able to do so, having never once sinned, being fully God and fully man.

Then, He rose from the dead defeating death.

Do not have regrets on Judgement Day. This is serious, and all I can do is plead with you.

Yawn, yawn, yawn, preachy bollocks, preachy bollocks, preachy bollocks.

We've seen many like you in the past, and some of them are on that list of child rapist "men of god" I mentioned above.

Ask yourself, what motivates me to do this? I am not trying to get you to go and join any particular local church, I am not asking any of you for money, and I am not getting paid to come up against your ridicule and disrespect, nor am I doing this to earn any status with God, as His work is complete at the Cross.

I am simply one beggar who has found the Bread that Satisfies and want to share it with you before you starve to death.

Pull the other one, it's got fucking bells on. We all know you're doing this to store up brownie points with your imaginary magic man, so that you can spend eternity as part of his gigantic human centipede of arse lickers in his North Korea in the sky. We've seen sanctimonious panhandlers like you come and go here, you're a dime a dozen.

Acknowledge and turn from your sin and entrust your life to Jesus, He is the only way.

Stand in the middle of Damascus right now and try saying that. Let's see how long you last with the resident mythology fanboys there.

If you were in a burning building, on the top floor of a fairly high building, and a Firefighter came to the window, how quickly you would accept that he was the only way out of certain death.

We have evidence that firefighters exist. You keep walking into this, don't you?

God made a way for you. Please do not have any regrets on Judgement Day.

If all you're going to do here, is peddle the usual creationist lies and bullshit, as well as bore us shitless with preachy bollocks, then fuck off. Seriously. You and your ilk are a drag anchor on human progress, and perpetuate the sort of fucked up thinking that led 25 million Europeans to waste their time in 1348 with worthless mythology, instead of doing what was possible in that era to mitigate the Black Death. And now we're seeing your ilk repeat the same fucking stupidity in the 21st century with Covid-19.

You and your ilk are a fucking waste of carbon atoms.

NewSkeptic's picture
@Cali,

@Cali,

Give fishie a minute or two to read those papers and I'm sure he'll get back to you with a logical refutation.

Gotsta say, one thing nice about this Covid-19 bugger is that I have time to read your posts, and that one was, as the Beach Boys once sang, Fun, Fun, Fun.

Whitefire13's picture
Fuck Cali, I love your brain!

Fuck Cali, I love your brain!

Old man shouts at clouds's picture
@ Calli

@ Calli

Thank you so much for this...and all the other posts and references you have made! Quite the biggest folder in my research archives!!!

Calilasseia's picture
Pity I can't send you the

Pity I can't send you the papers easily ... only there's now around 6 gigabytes worth of them on the hard drive of my computer ...

Tin-Man's picture
@Cali

@Cali

Fair warning... I'm pretty sure there will be a few comments you made that I will end up stealing and using for myself somewhere down the road. Just to let you know... *big grin*...

Cognostic's picture
@C: It's just worth

@C: It's just worth repeating. "You and your ilk are a fucking waste of carbon atoms."

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